Light transmission aggregometry (LTA) is used worldwide for the investigation of heritable platelet function disorders (PFDs), but interpretation of results is complicated by the feedback effects of ADP and thromboxane A2 (TxA2) and by the overlap with the response of healthy volunteers. Over 5 years, we have performed lumi-aggregometry on 9 platelet agonists in 111 unrelated research participants with suspected PFDs and in 70 healthy volunteers. Abnormal LTA or ATP secretion test results were identified in 58% of participants. In 84% of these, the patterns of response were consistent with defects in Gi receptor signaling, the TxA2 pathway, and dense granule secretion.
The periprocedural management of patients receiving long-term oral anticoagulant therapy remains a common but difficult clinical problem, with a lack of high-quality evidence to inform best practices. It is a patient's thromboembolic risk that drives the need for an aggressive periprocedural strategy, including the use of heparin bridging therapy, to minimize time off anticoagulant therapy, while the procedural bleed risk determines how and when postprocedural anticoagulant therapy should be resumed
Patients with ?-thalassemia major (TM) and other refractory anemias requiring regular blood transfusions accumulate iron that damages the liver, endocrine system, and most importantly the heart. The prognosis in TM has improved remarkably over the past 10 years. This improvement has resulted from the development of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques, especially T2*, to accurately measure cardiac and liver iron, and from the availability of 3 iron-chelating drugs. In this article we describe the use of MRI to determine which adult and pediatric patients need to begin iron chelation therapy and to monitor their progress.
The most common cause of treatment failure in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) remains relapse, occurring in ? 15%-20% of patients. Survival of relapsed patients can be predicted by site of relapse, length of first complete remission, and immunophenotype of relapsed ALL. BM and early relapse (< 30 months from diagnosis), as well as T-ALL, are associated with worse prognosis than isolated extramedullary or late relapse (> 30 months from diagnosis).
The paradigm for managing primary immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) in adults has changed with the advent of rituximab and thrombopoietin receptor agonists (TPO-RAs) as options for second-line therapy. Splenectomy continues to provide the highest cure rate (60%-70% at 5+ years). Nonetheless, splenectomy is invasive, irreversible, associated with postoperative complications, and its outcome is currently unpredictable, leading some physicians and patients toward postponement and use of alternative approaches. An important predicament is the lack of studies comparing second-line options to splenectomy and to each other. Furthermore, some adults will improve spontaneously within 1-2 years. Rituximab has been given to more than 1 million patients worldwide, is generally well tolerated, and its short-term toxicity is acceptable.
Polycythemia vera (PV) is a clonal disorder characterized by unwarranted production of red blood cells. In the majority of cases, PV is driven by oncogenic mutations that constitutively activate the JAK-STAT signal transduction pathway, such as JAK2 V617F, or exon 12 mutations or LNK mutations. Diagnosis of PV is based on the WHO criteria. Diagnosis of post-PV myelofibrosis is established according to the International Working Group for Myeloproliferative Neoplasms Research and Treatment criteria. Different clinical presentations of PV are discussed. Prognostication of PV is tailored to the most frequent complication during follow-up, namely, thrombosis. Age older than 60 years and prior history of thrombosis are the 2 main risk factors for disease stratification.
Acute myeloid leukemia is a heterogeneous disease that accounts for approximately 20% of acute leukemias in children and adolescents. Despite the lack of targeted therapy for most subtypes and a dearth of new agents, survival rates have reached approximately 60% for children treated on clinical trials in developed countries.
Survival in severe aplastic anemia (SAA) has markedly improved in the past 4 decades because of advances in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, immunosuppressive biologics and drugs, and supportive care. However, management of SAA patients remains challenging, both acutely in addressing the immediate consequences of pancytopenia and in the long term because of the disease's natural history and the consequences of therapy
wo novel oral anticoagulants, dabigatran and rivaroxaban, have recently been approved. They differ in many ways from warfarin, including rapid onset of action, shorter half-life, fewer drug-drug interactions, lack of need for monitoring, and no need for titration or dose adjustments. These novel agents represent a landmark shift in anticoagulant care; however, many aspects of their use will be unfamiliar to practicing clinicians, despite the imminent widespread use of these agents in the community
Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia is a prothrombotic adverse drug effect induced by platelet-activating antibodies against multimolecular complexes of platelet factor 4 and heparin. Diagnosis rests on a clinical assessment of disease probability and laboratory testing. Management involves immediate discontinuation of heparin and initiation of an alternative anticoagulant. Because of the frequency of thrombocytopenia among heparinized patients, the limited specificity of widely available immunoassays, the limited availability of more specific functional assays, and clinicians' fears of missing a case of true disease, overtesting, overdiagnosis, and overtreatment have become common.