מפרסם: International Journal of Radiation Oncology Biology Physics
To evaluate the efficacy of stereotactic radiotherapy (SRT) for small, localized, pediatric brain tumors and to determine the patterns of failure.
METHODS AND MATERIALS:
A total of 81 patients were enrolled in an institutional review board-approved prospective Dana-Farber Cancer Institute protocol between 1992 and 1998. Of the 81 patients, 50 had low-grade astrocytoma, 23 had residual or recurrent craniopharyngioma, 4 had posterior fossa ependymoma, and 4 had other histologic types. All patients underwent biopsy for diagnosis, with the exception of patients with neurofibromatosis and radiographic evidence of an optic system tumor. The neurocognitive outcome for all patients was also an endpoint of the study and will be reported separately. This report focused on the patients with low-grade gliomas only. Of the 50 patients, 26 were males and 24 females; the median age was 9 years (range, 2-26 years). The indications for treatment of patients with low-grade gliomas were progression during or after chemotherapy or progression after surgery alone. SRT was delivered using a dedicated 6-MV linear accelerator. Immobilization was accomplished with a removable head-frame. CT and MRI fusion was used for treatment planning. The target volume generally included the preoperative tumor plus a 2-mm margin for the planning target volume. The median collimator size was 47.25 mm (range, 30-60 mm). Three to nine arcs were used to deliver a mean total dose of 52.2 Gy in 1.8-Gy daily fractions.
With a median follow-up of 6.9 years (range, 0.9-10.2 years), the progression-free survival rate was 82.5% at 5 years and 65% at 8 years. The overall survival was 97.8% at 5 years and 82% at 8 years. Six patients had local progression. Two of the patients with local progression had pathologic progression to anaplastic astrocytoma 3 and 7 years after initial SRT. Five patients, all with optic system/hypothalamic primary tumors, developed central nervous system dissemination 1.0-7.4 years after SRT. One patient developed a presumed radiation-induced primitive neuroectodermal tumor 6 years after initial treatment. Six patients died, three of dissemination, two of progression to higher grade tumors, and one of a secondary radiation-induced tumor. All 6 cases of local progression were within the primary tumor bed at the time of progression and had received the full prescription dose. No marginal failures occurred.
Stereotactic radiotherapy provides excellent local control for children with small, localized low-grade glial tumors. Marginal failures have not been observed, supporting the use of limited margins to minimize late sequelae using stereotactic immobilization and planning techniques.